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Luzon- is the largest and most important of the Philippine islands, with an area of 40,420 sq. mi. (104,688 sq. km.). It is the site of Manila, the nations capital and major metropolis, and of Quezon city. Located on the northern part of the Philippine archipelago, it is bounded by the Philippine Sea (east), Sibuyan Sea (south), and the South China Sea (west). To the north, the Luzon Strait separates Luzon from Taiwan.
Most of the island, a roughly rectangular area, lies north of Manila two peninsulas, Batangas and Bicol, extend south and southeast, giving Luzon its regular shape. Luzon's coastline more than 3,000 mi. (5,000 km) long, is intended by many fine bays and gulfs, including Lingayen Gulf and Manila Bay on the west and lamon Bay and Lagonoy Gulf on the east. Luzon (meaning big light) represents 35 percent of of the land area of the Philippines, and its greatest dimensions are 460 by 140 mi. There is a predominant north-south trend in its rivers and relief features. The important ranges are the Cordillera Central in the north; the Sierra Madre, following much of the east coast; and the Zambales Mountains on the Central western coast. Mt. Pulog (9,612 ft) is the highest peak. Isolated volcanic cones such as the near-perfect and still active Mayon Volcano (8,077 ft) and on Bicol Peninsula. Taal Lake is a crater lake, and Laguna de Bay is the largest (344 sq mi) lake in the Philippines. The major rivers are CAGAYAN, ABRA, AGNO, PAMPANGA, AND BICOL.
Luzon leads the nation both in industry (concentrated near Manila) and in agriculture (rice, corn, coconuts, sugarcane, mangoes, bananas). A central plain stretching 100 miles (160 km) north of Manila is the Major grain-producing region. Farther north are the spectacular rice terraces of the Ifugao mountaineers. There are extensive coconut plantation on the Bondoc and Bicol peninsulas. Iron, gold, manganese, and copper are minned. Forest areas yield excellent hardwoods.
In addition to Manila and Quezon city, the main cities are Cabanatuan, Legaspi, Baguio, Batangas City and Laoag. About 50 percent of the Filipino population lives on Luzon.
The Luzon territory and community consists of Luzon, Mindoro, and other nearby islands. It is divided into Northern Luzon, Central Luzon and Southern Luzon. The community is inhabited by a larger number of Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicolanos, and other ethnic groups.